All posts by davemacq

I'm a retired physician-psychotherapist (with six university degrees ranging from physics to psychology), specialized in anger mangement, and deeply interested in the emotional issues underlying global warming, i.e., why and how have we created a situation where we are on a fast track to a suicide mission of our species. It is our hubris, and our insanity. And if we do not do something about it soon, we will become extinct as a species.

Dave’s Books, amongst Other Stuff

For direct enquiry of Dave:
Identify Email Heading as: The Human Side

I’ve obviously been neglecting this blog, and yet I’ve been busy. I am currently doing a Master of Arts in Theological Studies with the local Vancouver School of Theology, an affiliate of the University of British Columbia. As if I need another university degree (my seventh)!

However I use such processes to keep me accountable for my learning — if I were to audit courses, there is a good possibility that I would get lazy and not do the work that I want to do. So, in keeping with good habits, I set it up so that I am accountable.

As part of it all, I am also re-editing and re-publishing my two books Blowing Out the Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, Especially Anger and Rage and Acedia, the Darkness Within: and the darkness of Climate Change with The Ewing Publishing, Metaire, LA (the books will be available at shortly) — flyers below. Below the flyers are the links for where to purchase the books.

I’m also doing a talk on acedia for a local conference on Making Meaning in a Time of Media Polarization: “Acedia, the Issue behind Life Difficulties.” I’m planning on posting it here when complete.

If you are interested in what I have to say, have a look at some to the old posts (all the information is likely still appropriate), especially my emotional (anger) management program. My thoughts on Climate Change remain the same — we are approaching disaster; I am unclear whether we as a species are capable of responding. However I am committed to remaining positive; my skill set is to assist others in dealing with life pain — that is where I put my effort at creating change.

Here are the links for the books:

Barnes & Noble – The B&N welcomes international customers to shop with them online at

Acedia, The Darkness Within


Blowing Out the Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, Especially Anger and Rage 


—————————————————————————————— (Canada)

Acedia, The Darkness Within


Blowing Out the Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, Especially Anger and Rage

Link: Blowing Out The Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, Especially Anger and Rage: MacQuarrie, Dave: 9798886409383: Books –

—————————————————————————————— (USA)

Acedia, The Darkness Within


Blowing Out the Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, Especially Anger and Rage



ISBN Numbers: 

Acedia, The Darkness Within

Paperback: 9798886407310 

Hardback: 979-8886407327 

Blowing Out the Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, Especially Anger and Rage

Paperback: 979-8886409383

Hardback: 979-8886409390 

A New Workshop: What Am I Doing Here?

The Art Of Relating

The Art of Relating

What does it take to live a great relationship, a great partnership, a great friendship? Why is it so difficult for most of us?

There are skills that allow this to happen! Of course, it takes a lifetime to fully utilize these skills — yet much can be done in a few months. And of course, you have to know what these skills are.

Join us for a one-day workshop as we explore these skills, looking at how they can be utilized in your life, looking at what to focus on. Much can be gained in one day, the first steps of a new life, one that starts you in more successful direction.

Dave is a retired physician-psychotherapist who has spent his life exploring these skills, focusing on anger management and conflict resolution because he believes anger is the canary in the coal mine of our dysfunctional culture. His qualifications include a Master’s degree in Applied Behavioral Sciences, several diplomas in each of Gestalt Therapy and Neuro-Linguistic Programming, plus a variety of other trainings. He also has a PhD in Wisdom Studies. His major areas of interest were and continue to be those of ‘Anger, Rage and Violation’ and ‘Communication As Emotional Process’. His publications include Blowing Out The Darkness: The Management of Emotional Life Issues, especially Anger and Rage (2008) and Acedia, The Darkness Within, and the darkness of Climate Change (2012).

Dave has had his own relationship struggles; these form the base of his journey.

Date:                        Saturday, January 29th

Time:                       0730am – 1730pm Pacific

Location:      In Person (Burnaby, BC) and via Zoom, TBA

Cost: $125 CDN (payable by InterAc to

Further information available upon registration

Such A world

It has been a while since I added a post to this blog. My absence was partly due to busyness with other projects, yet mainly it was that I had run out of comments to make. I am much more interested in action than I am in verbage.

Much of this is because I have almost no hope that humanity will shift to greater maturity, such being needed for us to respond truly to the nature of global warming and all its complexity. Yet I am also deeply aware of the immense complexity of our species (especially as noted below), and I am open to be surprised that we will turn the situation around such that we survive.

Still, we have unfortunately delayed our response to the point where our world will change in significant ways, and likely the next hundred or so years will be difficult. At my current age of 78, I will not be around to experience most of these changes, and I am deeply saddened that they will be imposed upon my children and grand-children. Yet such are the struggles that will help them mature as human beings, in whatever ways are appropriate for them.

My basic mission statement continues to be “to encourage healthy emotional systems.” I remain limited in that I do not do well with long-term commitments to systems that show little change over time (my hermit nature), yet I deeply want to assist those who have ongoing pain (my poustinik nature), especially those who demonstrate their commitment to do the work of change. Unfortunately, most people I have worked with simply want to get out of pain, a short-term response (which I will comment upon in another post), and although I sometimes work with them, it is not usually very satisfying to me. I much prefer to work with those who want deep resolution of their life issues, the mommy-daddy issues of childhood residue and the broader issues of human maturity.

So I have decided to renew my investment in this blog, and will post intermittently, mainly presenting links I find fascinating or reflective of significant social issues, such as below.

Collapse and Renewal

A fascinating description of our world — be sure to read the entire post (the initial part is rather discouraging). The complexity described is what has prompted me to re-engage with this blog.


And it seems as if major political powers are paying attention to withdrawal from fossil fuels (I emphasize “seems” in that I have little trust in political hype):

HUGE VICTORY! People power defeats proposed GNL Quebec gas plant, 20210721
Greenland suspends oil exploration, says it takes ‘climate change seriously’, 20210716
Greenpeace Africa responds to the cancellation of oil blocks in Salonga National Park, urging similar decisions to be taken in Virunga and the rest of the Cuvette Centrale threatened by oil blocks, 20210722


Almost certainly you the reader of this blog has heard commentary on the latest IPCC Climate Report, one example being:

Climate report shows world pushed to the brink by fossil fuels, 20210819

I am also aware of how difficult it is to work with governments and other agencies of power. In particular, a small group of my collogues (my busyness alluded to above) have been attempting to get the British Columbia provincial government to take a deeper more comprehensive look at the Senior Care system, without much success. The current process seems to be interested parties submit proposals to the government, these proposals being politely received, and then discussed behind closed doors with minimal (if any) opportunity for collaboration and dialogue. This is not democracy as I understand it.

A similar situation seems to be occurring with the Vancouver Police Board regarding police street checks (another interest of mine from working in the Downtown Eastside):

Down the Rabbit Hole of Police Governance: The Saga of BCCLA’s Street Checks Complaint, 20210820

It is such a complex world and I have no idea as to how to begin the unraveling associated with such rabbit holes. The best alternative I have found continues to be:

  • to function from “high intention (do my best); low attachment (let go of outcome,” and
  • to enjoy the immense beauty and creativity of our world.

More Thoughts On The Pandemic

Pandemic1Little else to say other than more thoughts on the pandemic. As with most social issues of this nature, it is difficult to garner good information.

Here is some of which I have gathered.

Scientists Probe How Coronavirus Might Travel Through The Air (20200403)

A good article on the spread of coronavirus, via droplet or aerosol — unfortunately the science is not clear. WHO is still recommending 6 feet, until the science is more clear. For my part, if I go into a large grocery store with 50-70 other people, I still wonder if I am safe — of course, I wondered that before this article.

Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission (20200403)

A CDC link expressing mounting concern about how coronavirus is spread, especially in hot spots, and includes a short video of how to make a simple face mask from home materials. My guess is that it would stop much droplet transmission from the wearer and diminish output/intake of aerosol to a lesser degree.

Answers to your DIY face mask questions, including what material you should use (20200407)

Another good article on homemade face masks.

Why Did The World Shut Down For COVID-19 But Not Ebola, SARS Or Swine Flu? (20200414)

A good article as to what is different about Covid-19 as to result in a pandemic.

A Comic Strip Tour Of The Wild World Of Pandemic Modeling (20204013)

A visual presentation of the complexity of modelling — quite good although I am not a public health specialist.

Finally, a bit of humour:


Thoughts On The Pandemic

This post is a presentation of some of my thoughts on the pandemic and its impact on our culture. Gradually the stressors of our society are increasing, and at some point, we will collapse or move to a more mature culture. I hope the latter.

In the meantime, anxiety and stress are high. Such periods present not only challenge but the opportunity for growth.

Truth and Fiction: Gregg Braden (likely 202003)

Overall an excellent presentation of what we currently know about covid-19.

What’s Next For CoViD-19: Some Wild Guesses (How To Save The World) (20200329)

Another post from Dave Pollard, one of my favorite bloggers — I find him to be markedly perceptive of events in our culture (even though I disagree with his basic philosophic ontology). Here, he discusses “flattening the curve” (see the next two links, copied from his blog), as well as many aspects of how the pandemic will potentially persist for an extended period of time.

Why outbreaks like coronavirus spread exponentially, and how to “flatten the curve” (20200314)

An article referenced by Dave Pollard above, one that I think needs to stand on its own in its importance. Using visual simulations, it clearly demonstrates the impact of social distancing.

Pandemics: History & Prevention (20200327)

Pollard also presents this link to a video on the history of pandemics, produced approximately 2010 but very pertinent to our current situation. We need to stop factory farming of birds and mammals.

Idle some more: a novel climate solution (20200318)

Another link denoting the need for our culture to slow down.

Jack Kornfield — Pandemic Resources

Many resources for reducing stress in this stress-filled time.

Margolin: After Coronavirus Response, Older Generations Must Step Up for Youth (20200329)

This post correctly identifies two components of our current civilization. First, we are capable of responding to emergency measures — we demonstrate this with CoViD-19. Second, in our response and recovery, this is an opportunity to restructure our civilization. The difficulty with this second component is that, as a species (a la Steven Covey), we are very good at responding to the urgent and important, but typically we then next move to the urgent and unimportant! We have yet as a species to move from the urgent and important to the important and non-urgent as our second choice!

COVID-19 lockdown is already affecting some greenhouse gas emissions (20200320)

The first part notes that one of the significant impacts of the social distancing of Covid-19 is a major reduction in locally produced greenhouse gases! A potential reflection of how we need to act in the future.

On Laughter (TEDx) (20150113)

On the lighter side (and unrelated to the pandemic), one of the funniest presentations I have ever encountered. Partly in response to this, I have set up an email system “Stories I find hilarious” in which once a day I send out a humorous anecdote as a way to add a bit of lightness to the day. If you would like to be part of this, send me an email asking for same — make the subject line “Request: Stories I find hilarious” and send to I will put you on a Bcc list for the latest one.

A War Zone

The sacred Kaaba, empty!

As most people know, we are now in the midst of a major pandemic. I was shopping in a grocery store yesterday, and in my imagination, the scene was what I would expect of a war zone: many shelves empty, signs limiting quantities, services unavailable! This is perhaps a manifestation of one side of our humanity, our tendency to hoarding when threatened. Yet, there is another side wherein people are learning to connect in other ways (via Zoom, for instance), that in our isolation we also need community.

For me, this is the beginning of our adaptation to global warming. It may be (hopefully) that many positives will come out of the current stresses to our society. Thus, the links I am providing this time (after a fairly long absence) relate to both resources for the pandemic and to climate change.

I provide resources for the pandemic because of the vast amount of information circulating, and the need to filter that which is useful (in my opinion, both limited and broad-based).

I don’t intend the climate change links to bring ‘doom and gloom,’ yet I strongly believe we need to come to terms with the profound dysfunction of our culture. As therapist, I believe this can only be done by confronting and working-through the pain — not an easy process. When I myself first recognized the issues, I entered into three years of profound grief and a further four to five years of recovery. I can only quote Dante: Abandon all hope, ye who enter here, as the transition for release.

Corona Virus Information

BC Covid-19 Symptom Self-Assessment Tool

This sell-assessment process looks very reasonable, but is specific to the recommendations of British Columbia (which overall are quite appropriate).

New England Journal of Medicine: Corona Virus (free)

The New England Journal Of Medicine is one of the most prestigious medical journals of American medicine. It is offering free access to clinical reports, and is likely one of the most up-to-date resources available on the medical status. As with all medical resources, beware: a little knowledge is sometimes worse than no knowledge.

Coronavirus Sanity Guide (free)

Looks like an interesting site, with many resources.

The Sober Math Everyone Must Understand about the Pandemic (20200316)

I believe this article to be fairly reliable. The author is not a virologist or scientist, but he is a respected journalist who has won a number of major awards. As to the math, his assumptions are sensible, perhaps a bit extreme, but as I say, sensible. Even if he is pushing the numbers a bit, the overall approach is still likely to be quite accurate. As you will note by the social restrictions that are being imposed (closing libraries, community centers, bars, restaurants other than take-out, et etc here), these are all measures to flatten the curve. I suggest the major change will occur when a vaccine becomes available (4-12 months). A long period!

Climate Change Information

After the harvest — learning to leave the planet gracefully (20140614)

One of the best articles I have read on the worst case scenario: thoughtful, compassionate, honest, brilliant.

Deep Adaptation: A Map for Navigating Climate Tragedy (20180727)

A pdf document that gives a detailed discussion of the consequences if we as a culture are unable to prevent the massive collapse of our civilization. The original paper was rejected as “not to dishearten readers with the claim of ‘inevitable near-term social collapse,’” a form of censorship that prevents us from coming to grips with the despair that is hopefully a transient part of any grief process

Scientists’ Warning at Foresight Group, EU Commission (20190119)

A good video that looks at the possibility of social collapse.

Jem Bendell – Deep Adaptation (20190127)

A further discussion of the possibility of social collapse.

Miscellaneous Links

Why it’s so hard to find affordable mental health care (20200110)

As a physician-psychotherapist in Ontario, I had the advantage of being able to offer therapy to my ‘patients’ without personal expense. Very quickly my waiting list for individual therapy became such that I would tell patients I would be able to work with them in two years. This was for me a very vivid reminder of how underfunded was the process of emotional health, let alone so-called mental health (that concept would be a long rant in its own right).

This waiting list was unacceptable to me, and was one of the major factors of my switch to group practice. My anger management weekend became the entry point and, if clients then wanted to work with me, I was able to immediately place them in a group.

However it did not work very well. The vast majority of clients want individual therapy. My guess is that this is related to the ongoing shame factor associated with “mental health” — we are supposed to be able to “do it” ourselves without outside help, and we need to hide the fact that we are not able to do so (there are many stories I would be able to tell about these shame issues if space allowed).

It is all part of the craziness of our society, the individualistic model that is part of modern culture, perhaps intrinsic to neo-liberalism.

The Oakland women who took over a vacant lot to house the homeless (20200107)

Amongst other ways to contribute, I spend time each week in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, Canada’s poorest postal code and an incredible ecosystem of poverty, crime, drug addiction, sex trade, and surprising community. Metaphorically I have described is as ‘stepping blind-folded onto a three dimensional game of Snakes and Ladders.’ It is the flip-side of our individualistic model, representing those who for many reasons have not been able to live into the consumerism of our society. This link is one of many that emphasize the profound community that can develop.

Alberta’s “war room” is an attack on democracy (20200212)

One of the major areas of conflict polarization in our present culture, specifically that between British Columbia and Alberta, relates to how to handle the cultural dependence on fossil fuel, and the need for down-grading. This article is David Suzuki’s thoughtful response.

Surveillance Capitalism

Never have I been so frightened by a book as I have been with The Age Of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff, a fascinating and scary description of how capitalism has shifted in the past thirty years, essentially since the development of the World Wide Web and the digital age. A brief review is available here.

Since returning from traveling to Eastern Canada in September and October, I have been reluctant to access email, post to my blog, et cetera. Partly this has to do with my reading of this book. Every interchange on the web (browsing, email, cloud storage, et cetera) has a small amount of meta-data hidden from the average viewer. This data may include the date and location of the source transaction as well as the identity of the sender, data that when compiled can track and predict how an individual acts on a minute to minute basis. Much of the time this data is so hidden that it is not subject to the usual rules of privacy, and such that the extraction of this data occurs in the dark, and is then compiled and sold to others as a commodity without the permission of the originator. Such data can also be sold even if the originator expressly requests that the data be removed.

The technology of extracting and utilizing this data has become so potent that targeting of advertising can be made at and to the individual, and the hidden emotional manipulation is easily available. Even with my limited usage of the internet, I’ve been noticing interesting examples. For example, my email is and I have a peripheral email I use an iMac and have an iPhone. I almost never use the gmail account; largely I have it so that I can access Google Docs that are sometimes sent to me.

If I am at a browser site, and want to share the link with another person, I access the Share link, then the email link. And of course the system offers auto-refill of addresses. The first one is always my gmail address and usually my default icloud address is not part of the list. Is this an example of targeting? My guess is Yes, particularly since the biggest player in this surveillance commodification Google, followed closely by Facebook.

I strongly recommend the book. The future it paints is very dystopic, even if we somehow manage to minimize the consequences of climate disruption.

All of which places me in a position of great distrust.

For this post, I also include a number of recent (and not so recent) links that I have found useful. Many are from David Suzuki, and although I recognize that (at least in Western Canada) he is a contentious figure, his writing is generally clear.

We owe Greta and the youth more than a Nobel Prize (20191016)

Greta Thunberg represents a tipping point, perhaps. As readers of this blog know, I repeatedly ask what will it take for us to mobilize effectively. It is not yet clear.

Forming bonds in times of crisis (20191113)

In contrast, David Suzuki offers “Change isn’t easy, but when people come together for the good of humanity and Earth, we can accomplish great things.”

Navigating difficult climate conversations (20121211)

A David Suzuki article emphasizing the need for building relationship rather than arguing ‘facts.’

Failure to address climate crisis puts children at risk (20191128)

A brief but fairly good summary of the current impact of global warming.

A 2020 vision for climate action (20201008)

More David Suzuki commentary on our failing systems and how to respond.

What Would Net Zero Emissions by 2025 Look Like? (20191115)

The Extinction Rebellion (XR) social cause asks/demands net zero emissions by 2025. As usual, Dave Pollard presents a detailed thoughtful analysis of what this would really require. Worth reading to get a sense of how difficult this will/would be.

Collective Intelligence to Make Sense of Complexity (20200106)

Here, Dave Pollard offers very clear thinking as to the problems inherent in all complex difficulties.

Revolutionary recycling? A new technology turns everyday trash into plastic treasure. (20191118)

Still under investigation and shrouded in commercial secrecy, this could be a major step forward in the management of our accumulating garbage, as well as a replacement process to manage plastic.

Responding To The Social Issues

It has been a while since my last post. Amongst other aspects, I decided to drastically limit my attention to email and other distractions. For about two months now, I am only opening emails from those whom I know personally — all the others are trashed immediately. As a result, I find myself more relaxed with more available time, which of course I have already filled with (more beneficial) activities. Being “retired,” I am actually at least as busy as when I was in practice, perhaps more so (as I am more actively responding to the social issues of the day).

Yet it also leaves me somewhat unclear as to how to contribute. I am still active in promoting the skills of managing polarized conflict and I am still invested in a variety of other social contributions. On the one hand, I am not certain that I have missed anything important in the news by trashing most of my emails; nevertheless I still have mild guilt and overwhelm that I am missing vast quantities of good information in books and other more reliable sources. It is so difficult to manage the information age!

As noted in the last link attached to this post, I strongly believe that every intelligent response is important (and hopefully these posts are regarded as intelligent). The changes required of our culture are massive — here, an interesting link is the first one. It notes that intractable conflict, a major issue that has become much more prominent in the past twenty years, is the central issue preventing our effective response to climate disruption. This parallels my own thoughts concerning cultural acedia as the major issue.

And so I truck on!

Beyond Intractability

A very interesting site with many resources. They name themselves as “Providing support to those working to address the intractable conflict problem, as well as those struggling with the many tractable, but still troublesome, disputes that characterize everyday life.” and note that “Destructive Conflict is the Most Serious Threat to Our Common Future. It ruins personal lives, prevents us from solving common problems, and underlies dystopian trends toward authoritarianism, chaos, and large-scale violence.”

What is Extinction Rebellion and what are its demands? (20191008)

A brief description of a movement that is making a difference in challenging for government action — British based originally, it affiliates with The Climate Mobilization group in the States.

Yes, the Climate Crisis May Wipe out Six Billion People (20190918)

This is an extreme yet entirely feasible scenario of our future.

XR and the Defence of Necessity (20191019)

An excellent analysis of the legal difficulties that will underlie civil disobedience, especially when associated with any degree of violence/violation.

No Accounting (20191009)

As with the previous link, this is another from Dave Pollard’s blog, this time on advertising and the media. As mentioned on other occasions, I do not subscribe to Dave’s fundamental philosophy (which I find nihilistic), I continue to value his depth of thinking about issues related to global collapse.

Corona Becomes First Major Beer Company to Adopt Edible 6-Pack Rings that Feed, Rather than Kill, Fish (201911)

An interesting and important response. Although small in the overall need, every intelligent response is important.

The Shift Is Happening

This post repeats what for me may be prominent news stories, or at least need to be. If you have not seen them, they need to be seen. The shift is happening, slowly.

Our culture is going to change, one way or another. The hope of many is that the changes can be accommodated, but the process of change will be daunting. This past week, around the world, many millions have been demonstrating in the request for such change.

If the changes cannot be accommodated, they will still happen, only then we will have economic collapse, mass conflict, and mass loss of life.

It does not yet appear what we shall be!

Greta Thunberg was right: There is an alternative to ‘eternal economic growth’: Don Pittis (20190926)

Greta Thunberg has been a tipping point in mobilizing young people — after all, they are the people who will need to live the ensuing culture. The issue is not knowledge — we know what to do, or at least we are gradually finding the models and resources to change the culture. The issue is willingness to do the work.

Managing Without Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster (20130415)

From the same source, an economic growth model that we could adapt.

Yet we still exist at a knife edge.

Flooded cities, vanishing sea life forecast in new UN-backed report (20190927)

As many know, the IPCC is a scientific think tank based on consensus, thus sensitive to presenting comments to which all essentially agree. Thus, its predictions are generally on the low side. Gradually their assessments are becoming more dire yet need to be read as the minimal risk of what may occur.

Tackling climate change means purging privilege from politics (20190925)

We must find ways to eliminate, or at least markedly reduce, the discrepancies that keep our society equitable.

And we do a very poor job of assessment.

Make debate great again: How bad political argument is undermining democracy (20190926

As I hope is obvious, a major part of my work is that of presenting skills to diminish polarization in conflict. Here, two philosophers comment on the mechanisms whereby our democracy is failing.

A Knife Edge

Slowly our culture is responding yet we are at a knife’s edge, balanced between the collapse of civilization and the transformation to a more healthy society. It is not yet clear what we shall be. An interesting reflection of a significant day in our modern culture.

How To Transform Apocalypse Fatigue Into Action On Global Warming (201709)

Practical ways of transforming how to shift our defense mechanisms into more productive responses to climate disruption.

Carbon capture: What you need to know about catching CO2 to fight climate change (20190902)

A good summary of the pros and cons of carbon capture. My major reservation is that it is another tool for maintaining our current culture without addressing the need for system change.

7,000 Colleges and Universities Declare Climate Emergency, With a Plan to Fight It (20190711)

Gradually society mobilizes with regard to climate disruption; I only hope for action rather than words. On note, of the 7000 institutions, there is this comment on who is engaged: “The individual institutions that have joined the declaration include five in the continental U.S” — a paltry five from the country which likely has the greatest influence!

Let the children vote? (20190828)

The suggestion is to lower the voting age to eight. Given that many children have significant wisdom, and that they will need to deal with the inefficiencies of the adults of our current society, it may well be a good suggestion.

Great Books: Jim Garrison, PhD on Plutarch’s Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans Part 1 (20190723)

Great Books Webinar Jim Garrison, PhD on Plutarch’s Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans Part 2 (20190828)

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. (Santayana, 1905)” Jim Garrison is President of Ubiquity University and a brilliant historian as well as public speaker. In these two videos, he compares our present culture as reflected in the Presidency of Donald Trump with the lives of Alcibiades (Greek) and Sulla (Roman), two individuals who respectfully precipitated the ending of Athenian democracy and the Roman Republic though their hubris and aggressiveness.